Gymnasiarchy was a costly office. Inscriptions from Poleis of Asia Minor, dating from imperial times, indicate that gymnasiarchs superintended not only one, but different gymnasia, sometimes over several years. These multiple office holdings constituted a relevant difference to the Hellenistic forms of gymnasiarchy, which had used to be a regular one-year magistracy limited to one gymnasium. Scholars attribute these changes to the increasing economic problems of the Polis elites, suggesting the development of gymnasiarchy into aneuergetic-liturgical office of a few wealthy families. Linked to this is another phenomenon: In connection with the imperial cult, the area of authority of gymnasiarchs went far beyond a single Polis. This is shown e.g. by the mentioning of a “gymnasiarch of the four eparchies” on a new inscription of Tyros. Similarly, inscriptions from Pergamonhonoured office holders who supervised several gymnasia simultaneously in connection with the imperial cult. Apparently, the definition of “gymnasium” had changed. The question arises whether these “provincial” or “multiple” gymnasiarchies were only sporadic ad hoc-charges or regular magistracies, like in Hellenistic times. However, it seems that the province-wide imperial cult, in particular, caused a reassessment of the gymnasiarchy, which affected the overall financial willingness to be appointed to this public office.