The presentation will provide a brief overview of the Mesopotamian material. Then it will turn to the comparative questions on what is ‘unique’ and/or ‘universal’ in the ancient therapeutic texts dealing with eye diseases. In order to shed some light on these questions, the Mesopotamian ophthalmological practices will be compared with the Ancient Egyptian material, Dioscorides, the Syrian Book of Medicine, Celsus De Medicina, and the Hippocratic Treatise On the Eye.