Non invasive scientific analyses of the vanished decoration on sculpted ivories originating from Arslan Tash, 8th century BCE, Syria, were performed. The scientific study is the basis for the epistemological illustration and discussion of the role of new physico-chemical analyses in cultural heritage sciences in order to improve the recognition and the definition of the materiality of objects and their function. By means of material analyses it is possible to complement the appearance of the object. In this way natural scientific methods have the potential to provide new object information beyond our human senses. It was shown that taphonomical processes can also modify the material properties of the objects and a sa consequence their materiality in the sense of their visual effect that they can have on us. This leads to a changed way of handling the objects today.